- What Are Moldova Women Like? - Eastern European Travel
- Dating Moldovan girl keep to the certain rules
- 16 Norms of Moldova
- About I think about that every day
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What Are Moldova Women Like? - Eastern European Travel
The national awakening that took place in the late s led directly to the adoption of a language law on 30 August that defined Moldovan, written in the Latin script, as the state language. Although the language is still officially named "Moldovan," considerable re-Romanization has made the difference between Romanian and Moldovan virtually a distinction between a standard written language and a dialect.
Cyrillic is used to write Moldovan only in the separatist region of Transdniestria. Ordinary Moldovans on the right bank of the Dniestr, however, may use Cyrillic for private notes or letters, especially if they are 40 to 60 years of age and uneducated. Despite the change of state language, very few non-Moldovan residents are fluent in Moldovan, and many have a negative attitude toward that language. Between and , Russian was the lingua franca. The introduction of new requirements in aimed at fostering the use of Moldovan was widely regarded as forceful Romanization and conjured unhappy memories of Romanian rule in Bessarabia.
Dating Moldovan girl keep to the certain rules
Fears of possible unification with Romania also played a major role. The political battle over the future status of the Moldovan and Russian languages is deeply connected with the conflicts that arose in between the central government and separatist movements in Gagauzia and Transdniestria. The language issue remains highly politicized, and attitudes toward Moldovan, especially when it is called Romanian, continue to be largely negative among the non-Moldovan population. Moldovans who were born and brought up after tend to speak less and less Russian, a development that could lead to growing problems of interethnic communication.
The national symbols represent over six hundred years of history as well as a close connection to Romania. The state flag is composed of the traditional Romanian colors of blue, yellow, and red.
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In the center is the republic's seal, consisting of the Romanian eagle with the historical Moldovan seal on its breast. Since the fourteenth century, the seal has consisted of an ox's head with a star between its horns, a rose to the right, and a crescent to the left. Its name has a special integrating power in two respects: Language is the most important national symbol for Moldovans, and it evades the answer to the question of how this language should be labeled: All these symbols, however, do not appeal to other ethnic groups and thus confine the idea of an "imagined community" to the titular nation.
It tells the story of a Moldovan shepherd who is betrayed and murdered by two Romanian colleagues: For the Romanian side, this story is about an "incident in the family," while for the Moldovan side, it reproduces the distinction between the good, diligent, and peaceful Moldovan and the mean and criminal Romanian.
Next to hospitality, diligence and peacefulness are the national characteristics Moldovans associate with themselves. When Moldovans want to show pride in their country, they refer mostly to the qualities of its wine and food and the beauty of its women.
Wine is an especially powerful symbol, associated with quality, purity, and healing. The cellars of Cricova with their extensive collection of old wines are considered the state treasure. Emergence of the Nation. The government thus celebrated the th anniversary of statehood in However, what is today the Republic of Moldova consists only of the central and eastern parts of the original principality. The Transdniestrian region was never part of the principality, but Moldovan colonists settled on the left bank of the Dniestr in the fifteenth century. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the principality extended from the Carpathians to the Dniestr.
Under Stephen the Great — , who defended the principality successfully against the Ottoman Empire, Moldova flourished. Many churches and monasteries were built under his regency. Stephen is regarded as the main national hero of contemporary Moldova. However, soon after Stephen died, Moldova lost its independence and became, like the neighboring principality of Valachia, a vassal state of Constantinople. In , western Moldova and Valachia formed the united principality of Romania, which gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in Thus, the Moldovans in Bessarabia were excluded from the Romanian nation-building process and remained in an underdeveloped, remote, agricultural province of the Russian Empire.
The unification was mostly due to the desperate circumstances the young, unstable republic faced and was not applauded by all sections of the population. The following twenty-two years of Romanian rule are considered by many Moldovans and non-Moldovans as a period of colonization and exploitation. The subsequent period of Sovietization and Russification, however, is regarded as the darkest period in the national history.
16 Norms of Moldova
Stalin annexed Bessarabia in June and again in , when the Soviet Union reconquered the area after temporary Romanian occupation. Having been ruled by foreign powers since the sixteenth century, Moldova declared its independence on 27 August After sentiments ran high in favor of unification with Romania at the beginning of the s, the tide turned, and in a referendum 95 percent of the voters elected to retain independence.
As a result of their close historical, linguistic, and cultural ties with Romania, many Moldovans see themselves as Romanian. At the same time, the one hundred eighty years of separation from Romania and the different influences Bessarabia has experienced since the early nineteenth century have preserved and reinforced a distinctive Moldovan identity east of the Prut. Unlike Romanians, a high percentage of Moldovans have an ethnically mixed family background.
Consequently, probably less than 5 percent of the people consider themselves to have a pure Romanian identity, whereas another 5 to 10 percent would identify themselves as Moldovan in the sense of being outspokenly non-Romanian. The existence of these two groups is reflected in a fierce debate between "Unionists" and "Moldovanists.
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Since discussions on unification with Romania have disappeared from the public agenda, the question of how to form a multi-ethnic nation-state is growing in importance. Bessarabia has always been a multiethnic region, and ethnic relations generally are considered good.
Especially in the north, Moldovans and Ukrainians have lived together peacefully for centuries and share cultural features. Whereas the conflict between Gagauz and Moldovans was kept below the level of large-scale violence, the Transdniestrian conflict escalated into a full-fledged civil war in spring More than a thousand people were said to have been killed, and over a hundred thousand had to leave their homes.
Moldovans and non-Moldovans could be found on both sides. On the right bank of the Dniestr, where the majority of the Russian-speaking community lives, no violent clashes took place. Since the war, additional efforts have been made to include non-Moldovans in the nation-building process. The constitution and subsequent legislation safeguarded the rights of minorities, and in the same year broad autonomous powers were granted to the Gagauz. Official buildings and those erected by the early bourgeoisie are in a neoclassical style of architecture; there are also many small one-story houses in the center, and the outskirts are dominated by typical Soviet-style residential buildings.
Small towns mainly enlarged villages also have examples of Soviet-style administration buildings and apartment blocks. Depending on their original inhabitants, villages have typical Moldovan, Ukrainian, Gagauz, Bulgarian, or German houses and a Soviet-style infrastructure cultural center, school, local council buildings. Houses have their own gardens and usually their own vineyards and are surrounded by low metal ornamented bars.
Interaction differs in urban and rural areas. In the villages, people are open and greet passersby without prior acquaintance; in the cities, there is a greater anonymity, although people interact with strangers in certain situations, for example, on public transportation. Food in Daily Life. Mamaliga , a hard corn porridge, is regarded as the national dish. It is poured onto a flat surface in the shape of a big cake and is served mainly with cheese, sour cream, or milk. Non-Moldovan inhabitants joke that Moldovans would be unhappy if they could not eat mamaliga once a week.
The main foods in daily life are a mixture of vegetables and meat chicken, goose, duck, pork, and lamb , but the availability of vegetables depends on the season. Filled cabbage and grape leaves as well as soups such as zama and the Russian borsch also form part of daily meals. Buildings and a church line a street in Chisinau. The city architecture was mostly constructed by the Russians in the nineteenth century.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.
Orthodox Christian baptisms, funerals, and weddings are accompanied by large gatherings where several meat and vegetable dishes, desserts, and cakes as well as wine are served. Homemade vodka and brandy also are offered.
At Easter, a special bread, pasca , is baked in every household, and eggs are painted in various colors. Families go to the graveyard to celebrate their dead kin; they eat food at the graves while drinking wine and offering it to each other as they remember the dead. The national currency is the leu bani. Besides gypsum and very small gas and oil reserves, the country has no natural resources and is totally dependent on energy imports, mainly from Russia.
Moldova has experienced a sharp downturn in its economy in the last ten years.
In , the gross domestic product GDP was 35 percent of the level, and the state is unable to pay pensions and salaries on time. As a result, more people produce food and other necessities for themselves now than in the s. This includes virtually the entire rural population and many city dwellers who own small gardens in the countryside. The parallel economy is estimated to account for 20 to 40 percent of the GDP. Land Tenure and Property. During the Soviet period, there was no private land, only state-owned collective farms. Since , as part of the transition to a market economy, privatization of land as well as houses and apartments has taken place.
However, the process is still under way and has faced fierce resistance from so-called agroindustrial complexes.
There are mixed as well as specialized markets for food, flowers, spare parts, and construction materials. This "market economy" clearly outsells the regular shops. Besides foodstuffs, which are partially home-grown, all products are imported. These types of commercial activities are flourishing because of market liberalization and the economic downturn. Many educated specialists find it easier to earn money through commercial activities than by practicing their professions. Industry is concentrated in the food-processing sector, wine making, and tobacco. Other fields include electronic equipment, machinery, textiles, and shoes.
The small heavy industry sector includes a metallurgical plant in Transdniestria that produces high-quality steel. Russia and other Commonwealth of Independent States CIS countries accounted for 69 percent of exports and 58 percent of imports in Exports are mainly agroindustrial products 72 percent , especially wine, but also include shoes and textiles 12 percent. The main import goods are mineral products 31 percent , machinery and electronic equipment 19 percent , and chemical products 12 percent.
To realign foreign trade away from Russia and toward Western European and other countries, Moldova has constructed an oil terminal on the Danube and is seeking closer economic ties with Romania and the European Union. It is expected to join the World Trade Organization. Large landowners boyars disappeared after the establishment of Soviet power.
There is an emergent class of high-ranking officials A worker supervising bottling at a winery in Chisinau. Wine is a symbolic drink used to honor the host at a meal. Social stratification is determined mainly by economic and political power. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, those who had higher positions in the government tended to be Moldovans, while Russians dominated the private sector. Urban workers have maintained their rural connections and grow fruit and vegetables on small plots of land in the towns.
Symbols of Social Stratification. Newly built ornamented houses and villas, cars especially Western cars with tinted windows , cellular telephones, and fashionable clothes are the most distinguishing symbols of wealth. Consumer goods brought from abroad Turkey, Romania, Germany function as status symbols in cities and rural areas.